1 TWO NATION THEORY
2 Meaning of Two Nation Theory
3 THE BASIS OF THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
4 1.Religious Differences
5 2.Hindu Nationalism
6 3.Cultural Differences
7 4.Social Differences
8 5.Economics Differences
9 6.Educational Differences
10 7.Political Differences
11 (i) Hindi Urdu Controversy
12 (ii) Congress Attitude
13 (iii) Partition of Bengal
15 Sir syed Ahmed Khan-The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory
16 TWO NATION THEORY IN THE VIEW OF ALLAMA IQBAL
17 QUAID-E-AZAM'S STATEMENT ON TWO NATION THEORY
Meaning of Two Nation Theory
The Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural,political,religious,economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities.Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent.These difference of out look ,in fact,were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.
THE BASIS OF THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate Nations.They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization.Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as:
"The Hindus society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries.The two socities,Hindus and Muslims,like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged,each following its separate course."
There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two Nations.Let us examine each of them separately.
The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions.Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law.Muslims are the believers of God,The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) the Holy Book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.
Hinduism,on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods.Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towards life.
A number of Hindu nationalist movements,which emerged from time to time in the Indian history ,added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities.
The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities.Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.
Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture.The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burred them.Hindus considered the 'Mother cow' as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it.they performed 'sati' while Muslims abhorred this tradition .The Hindus and Muslims did not intermarry nor they inter-dine.
The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well.The clothes,the foods,the household utensils,the layout of homes,the words of salutation,the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin.
After 1857,the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to determent the Muslim condition .They were thrown out of Government services and the their estates and properties were confiscated,while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.
The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took the english education.While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.
The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the developement and evolution of Two Nation Theory.
(i) Hindi Urdu Controversy
In 1867,Hindus demande that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script.This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.
(ii) Congress Attitude
The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885.It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.
(iii) Partition of Bengal
In 1905,the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims,but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.
The Muslimsand Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages .The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script.On the other hand ,the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit.Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing,thoughts of poetry,arts,painting and words of music.Even this small difference lead to a stirring conflict between the two nations.
Sir syed Ahmed Khan-The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan,the pioneer of two nation theory,used the word 'two nation' for Hindus and Muslims after being concinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred,hostility and prejudice for the Muslims.
The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:
"I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes.By the word 'Nation' I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else,We,Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government.Our intrests and problems are common,and therfore,I consider the two factions as one nation."
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did his best to make the Muslims realize their differences ewith the Hindus with regard to religions,social and language national and international identity and for this purpose he diverted attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of "Two Nation" or "Two entities."
After Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed felt that it was not possible for Hindus and Muslims to progress as a single nation.He said:
" I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from each other."
TWO NATION THEORY IN THE VIEW OF ALLAMA IQBAL
Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the basis of two nation theory.He firmly believed in the separate identity of the Muslims as a nation and suggested that there would be no possibility of peace in the country unless and untill they were recognized as a nation.In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930,he said:
"India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions...I,therefore,demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam."
QUAID-E-AZAM'S STATEMENT ON TWO NATION THEORY
The most clear and emphatic exposition is found in Jinnah's statement and speeches.He expounded the two nation theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth.He declared:
" Muslims are not a minority,They are one nation by every definition of the word nation.By all canons of international law we are a nation."
Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was on idle dream.They are a totally different nation .They have an unbridgeable gulf between them and they stand miles apart in regards to their ideals,culture and religion.In 1973,he said:
"Hindustan is neither one country,nor its inhabitants one nation.This is Sub Continent which consist of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nations."
The Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society.They also came to realize the above mentioned differences between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus.
Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this as a base,Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August ,1947,and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan.
Quaid-e-Azam M.A. Jinnah's Vision for Pakistan
With the passage of 60 years since Pakistan's independence, a lot of myths have grown around Pakistan's founding father and his vision and intentions for Pakistan. This blog post is an attempt to explain who the Quaid-e-Azam was and what he wanted Pakistan to become as a nation.
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), the father of Pakistani nation, was a brilliant Muslim lawyer and political leader who lived a life that could be described as essentially westernized and secular. He was born in an Ismaili Shia Muslim family, raised in Karachi, receiving his early schooling at Karachi's Sindh Madressah and then received his law education in the U.K. He returned to the Sub-continent in 1896, married a Parsi woman Ruttie Petit, and practiced law in Bombay while waging a struggle for the independence of India from the British. He dressed mostly in the latest English-style suits of his time and spoke mostly in English with occasional Gujarati and Urdu. He did not have religious education and most ulema of his time agreed that his life did not conform to what most ulema considered "Islamic principles". In fact, the ulema on both sides of the partition debate, including Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani and Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, questioned Jinnah's credentials as a "good, practicing Muslim". He fought for India's freedom, first as the President of Indian National Congress, and then as the head of the Muslim League.
Having worked hard but unsuccessfully for Hindu-Muslim cooperation and unity, the Quaid--i-Azam was disillusioned with the Indian National Congress. He decided to join the Muslim League in 1935. After joining the Muslim League, his goal was to create a separate, independent homeland for Muslims of the Indian Sub-continent, where they could flourish freely without interference from or competition with the politically, educationally and economically dominant Hindu majority in South Asia. But he clearly opposed a "theocratic state" ruled by the religious elite (something like Iran's Guardian Council) with the ultimate veto power over the will of the people and the democratic processes and institutions. In fact, he believed in the separation of church and state, just as much as he favored the superiority of political leadership over the military officer corps in running the nation's affairs.
Here are three excepts from Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah's most important speeches laying out his vision for Pakistan:
"You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the State." Quaid-e-Azam M.A. Jinnah in address to first constituent assembly, Aug 11, 1947
"In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic state to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsis -- but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any
other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan." Quaid-i-Azam, Feb. 1948
“Never forget that you are the servants of the state. You do not make policy. It is we, the people’s representatives, who decide how the country is to be run. Your job is to only obey the decisions of your civilian masters.” Quaid-i-Azam's Address to Military Staff College, June 14, 1948.
In the current circumstances when Pakistan is threatened from the forces of darkness and dictatorships disguised as saviors of the nation, it is important that we understand clearly what the founding father intended for Pakistan. With the above speech quotes from the Quaid-i-Azam, I will let the reader be the judge of his intentions.
As you read and ponder, let me leave you with a relevant quote from popular columnist Ardeshir Cowasjee: "Fortunately for him, Jinnah did not live long enough to see his dream betrayed by men unworthy even to utter his name. He died before total disillusionment could set in (though he had his suspicions that it was on its way) and broke his heart. From what we know of him, he was that rare being, an incorruptible man in all the many varied meanings of the word corruption, purchasable by no other, swayed by no other, perverted by no other; a man of honor, integrity and high ideals. That the majority of his countrymen have been found wanting in these qualities is this country's tragedy."
In conclusion, I take the liberty of paraphrasing Iqbal's admonition to his fellow Indians in his time, as follows:
Na samjho gay to mit jao gay ay Pakistan walo
Thumhari dastan tak bhi no hogi dastanon main
Which loosely translates as:
Listen up, pay attention, and mend your ways, o Pakistanis
Or else thou shall perish and be consigned to the dustbin of history