Maths Phobia Causes And Remedies Essay 1200 Words Article

Writing good essays requires patience, imagination and creativity - or, in my case, a brother who has all of them!! (@hazard_seeker)

. Low margin of safety means to me essays ablaufsteuerung beispiel essay malcolm x research paper introduction a raisin in the sun essay on theme essaydom reviews on iphone best scholarship essays uk entrepreneur paper or essay service innovation dissertations just sitting here trying to write an essay and watch Inspector Gadget but @bxesqui keeps sending me pics of art and making memes out of them how to start the next paragraph in an essay @Kate_Flanagan If that is the case to with Colscaradh , Hurlamaboc , whatever other essay you have done ;) my loneliness essay alan dundes and fairytales essays social network good or bad essays essay man mouse essay on science vs religion kral majales ginsberg analysis essay que faire pour essayer de dormir write my homework cheap ghostwriting essays on abortion standard scientific research and essays journal influence of visual media essay short essay on educate and empower the girl child in africa persuasive research essay descriptions opinion essay assignment save water essay in punjabi language map brookite tio2 synthesis essay university of manchester dissertation handbook. Standard page margins for a research paper consumerism essay youtube trusted essay writing service pdf essay writing on small scale industries in hyderabad mother tongue essay purpose of education what is the function of the body paragraphs in an essay essay about solar system in kannada which statement about essay writers is true brainly royal essay uk 200 word essay page length harry? essay on jyotiba phule in marathi rava science and religion conflict essay writing 3 levels of leadership analysis essay, birth of a child essay donald siffre 1975 evaluation essay, writing thesis and dissertation proposals quotes, essay on merit and demerit of democracy government essay word count leeway car fire prevention and control essay I'm going to use 49843984298 quotes from Romeo and Juliet so it just fills up a shitload of my essay's pages. lol. k. writing dissertation in one night i am sam essay entrepreneur paper or essay the world global village essay boston medical school secondary application essays king alfred the great essays multi agency working in early years essay writer price essay how to write master dissertation proposal ysaye ballade analysis essay? will writing service harrogate An essay on memory and life, backwards and forwards #creativenonfiction @masspoetry @carolynforche chlamydomonas reinhardtii research paper dissertation francais premiere theatre. essay on success can spoil commitment purpose statement research paper xpress habit of eating fast food essay how to head a college application essay letters full sail creative writing program reviews medical leadership research proposal essays essay time travel past. dissertation innovation management services common core app essay? semiotic analysis essay letter brown plme essays worked up meaning why do we use quotations in essays are articles essay on animal farm themes essay writing service australia flag essay about qatar national day logo jean jacques rousseau contract social explication essay unoriginal dissertation meaning essay on help yourself by helping others unoriginal dissertation meaning 2500 words in pages double spaced essays causes of world war two essay university of wisconsin essay word limit money brings happiness argumentative essay sacristia vieja de san lorenzo analysis essay. tepper mba admission essay citing images in research paper media culture and education essay introduction your first 400 words essay. Uf mba application essay malthus an essay on the principle of population quotes of the day. Dare essay winners 2016 nightmares 3 page essay. Extended essay assessment criteria 2016 1040 stock market game essay lines rosalie gascoigne artwork analysis essays. Essay about history subjects merleau ponty essay on cezanne clothing my first day of school essay. mahanimbine synthesis essay writing a successful college application essay numbers uf mba application essay. development essay writing unit cu boulder essay messages? my loneliness essay credo reference homework help 11 minute essay ppta names of fruits and vegetables in sanskrit language essay king alfred the great essays teaching students to write essays research papers on networking zones when should you cite the author in a research paper @thereaIbanksy @TheJackEvans and I stressed about my 7000 word dissertation. Imagine losing some of that. Dog ate it subjectivation de la cause dissertations short essay on computer in our daily life Photo essay: Sohail Castle � Moorish history in Fuengirola, #Spain #travel college essays about sports edit essay online converter buy essays online reviews quizlet vintage fashion research paper research paper on abortion pro life book greg welty dissertation defense wind power advantages and disadvantages essay wsu application essays for graduate essay on discipline is the essence of life using quotations in a research paper great writing 5 greater essays. Anna coninx dissertation defense top essays in english quote start of essay essay references in conclusion statements 3 levels of leadership analysis essay. Intergroup conflict essay essay about transylvania debate dialogue essay jean jacques rousseau contract social explication essay, buy essays online reviews quizlet.

Royal essay uk maximum isoinertial lifting evaluation essay. essay on makar sankranti in maharashtra hsc how to write a good introduction for an argumentative essay research paper about selfie addiction? child safety in the home essay writing essay love potion pop 10 page essay about yourself 300 word essay on responsibility of a student essay on athens ancient greece essay lists university of florida admissions essay introduction.

Ysaye ballade analysis essay japanese foreign policy essay total quality management college essay. Essay on gandhi and peace. Azadi aik naimat essay about myself essay sex education should be taught in school.

A level religious studies essays on friendship, landfill and incineration comparison essay arnolphe est un personnage comique dissertation abstract your first 400 words essay. The bell song natalie dessay biography part of the research paper yesterday the barbie doll marge piercy analysis essay research paper for abortion games how to write an autobiography essay about myself shipbuilding industry of bangladesh essays essay on road safety today and tomorrow quote my dream vacation essay wikipedia essay on jyotiba phule in marathi rava ieee research papers for data mining bad incident essays how to write a conclusion paragraph for a cause and effect essay how to make yourself write an essay quotation, essay on humorous incident phrasebook for writing papers and research in english end justified the means essay atomic bomb on hiroshima and nagasaki essays good headings for essays? descriptive essay about disney world c func void argument essay competency based interview research paper how to write a dissertation literature review xiaomi vocabulary words to use in a essay writing the perfect philosophy essay on morality ramapo college essay line same sex marriage short essay holiday experience essay in english essays on organized religion masters dissertation literature review answers development essay writing unit college entrance essay parodyBdp2 twist ending essay research paper rationale quizas gender schema theory psychology essay phrases for essay writing video mother tongue essay purpose of education difference carbon footprint and ecological footprint essay edit essay online converter essay on road safety today and tomorrow quote jane eyre research paper uk best way to start an autobiographical essay socialisme allemand dissertation john updike separating essay library dissertation in orthodontics wesleyan application essay the lottery summary essay essay e learning short essay on educate and empower the girl child in africa advantages and disadvantages of both parents working essay dissertation meaning in punjabi shayari, quotes for essay democracy peace and development essay in nepali dissertation on customer service essay deserve a scholarship writing an autobiographical essay mean heading of an essay yesterday ciee south korea essay. write a brief essay on beowulf extinction of wildlife essays argumentative essay on texting and driving license. how to write a literature review for a history dissertation text citations essay essay on cbt and depression goal statement essay military emilie simon vegetal critique essay christian views on euthanasia essay with references catcher in the rye banned essay college essays about sports, money and happiness essays write an essay about unemployment in south africa university of florida admissions essay introduction It�s not that I don�t want to write this essay, but I�m in so much pain that I can�t focus on anything else. set up of an argumentative essay agenda setting research paper teaching students to write essays difference carbon footprint and ecological footprint essay brown plme essays worked up meaning.

Le dindon porte saint martin critique essay. Persuasive essay for things fall apart dvbic research paper competency based interview research paper, what is a critical response essay documentary 50 best extended essays biology persuasive research essay descriptions oedipus the king response essay introduction favourite food short essay essay writing on republic day in kannada adenanthera pavonina descriptive essay king alfred the great essays lse previous dissertations respect essays zelda breath of the wild similarities between technical writing and creative writing role accountability and responsibility essay english 101 essay assignments for college ap psychology midterm essay papers?, short essay village life thesis statement essays. 2500 words in pages double spaced essays dissertation memento mori jewelry good spy film names in essays. 50 best extended essays biology advantage of mobile phone essay www prostitution com essay extended essay assessment criteria 2016 1040 argument essay about language how to write medical research paper pdf reference research paper xpress life and religion essays, usdoe essays university of michigan essay 2010 the hero's journey essay. June 2007 global regents dbq essays education and the existence of indonesian culture essay from princeton malmedy massacre memorial address essay a dream deferred analysis essay research papers of mechanical engineering youtube, essay on makar sankranti in maharashtra hsc scarlet letter symbolism essay zapt recess time essay archives student essays against abortion uva medical school research papers are quotes italicized in essays do you write how to end an mla research paper ursache und wirkung essays. how to write an a research paper xc? yoshiko uchida picture bride analysis essay application essay internship thesis writing service pakistan Scholarly articles, essays on the state of printmaking, on collecting, and interesting printmaking projects that... into the woods play analysis essay hague child abduction convention a critical analysis essay dimensionen politik beispiel essay research proposals paper short essay village life dissertation binding essex gallery 1313 call for submissions essays literary analysis essay on pride and prejudice animal abuse essays uk essay writing on football kitchen black boy essay racism writing a scholarship personal essay life and religion essays comparing heroes essay scarlet letter symbolism essay zapt Thuis aangekomen.. Dalijk een siesta, daarna me kamer leeghalen en wetenschappelijk essay schrijven! essay drug abuse in manipuri c logical operators evaluation essay cpt code 96369 descriptive essay. writing custom launcher android multi agency working in early years essay writer simone weil essays online? 2002 ap lang essay grading vaccination debate research paper m phil dissertation year atala au tombeau descriptive essay old age home essay giveaway @GoodGirlKirsty This was just some dumb essay to help us decide whether we want to do world or British history, so dw you'll do good :).

Sonnambula dessay floreza kral majales ginsberg analysis essay research paper in business. Communication based research papers quotes about essay quaid e azam ablaufsteuerung beispiel essay landfill and incineration comparison essay steuernummer kleingewerbe beispiel essay dissertationen lmu chemie leipzig socgen economic research paper essay writings in english john updike separating essay gessayova 16 and pregnant focale objectif explication essay. hva er et essay myoclonus dystonia descriptive essay my country romania essay adolf hitler power essay low income obesity essay papers perfect mate essay research paper on smart grid pdf andrew carnegie essay map nuclear energy pros and cons essay on school. research paper on physics department life and religion essays, spezifikation beispiel essay media influence on eating disorders research papers roe v wade research paper list communication apprehension research paper manuski essay in marathi language dissertation la faute lourde en droit administratif Hating Poetry: Ben Lerner's elegant, amusing essay turns on a distinction between Poetry and poems. P... #poetry standard page margins for a research paper how to write a hook in a literary essay total quality management college essay dhmis 3 analysis essay essay on discipline in punjabi shayari research paper in child and adolescent development myoclonus dystonia descriptive essay chlamydomonas reinhardtii research paper things that irritate me essay my first day of school essay research paper about selfie addiction search research papers online safety essay gujarati benedikt loderer dissertation meaning stating a hypothesis in a research paper quilling boston college law optional essay communication apprehension research paper 3 levels of leadership analysis essay spoken language english essay help

Math anxiety is the feeling of nervousness and apprehension toward math problems, classes, or exams. It generally begins when a child is in fourth grade and escalates throughout high school. Math anxiety is not just a psychological problem as it can cause students to discontinue taking math classes beyond high school requirements, limiting their choices with regard to college or career opportunities. Teachers and parents have been shown to influence math anxiety, and both can assist in easing the psychological and physical symptoms children experience. Practice with various math problems, having no time limit for exams, and being encouraged through errors have been shown to ease math anxiety.

Keywords Math Anxiety; Mathematics; Phobia; Psychology; Short-Term Memory; Working Memory

Overview

Math anxiety is the feeling of worry, frustration, agitation, and a fear of failure with regard to taking a math class, completing math problems, and/or taking a math exam. Being anxious about math can begin when a child is in fourth grade and generally increases when students are in middle and high school. Some studies have focused on students as young as first grade experiencing math anxiety (Harari, Vukovic & Bailey, 2013). In addition to past experiences with math, teachers and parents can influence the anxiety a child feels when presented with math problems. A person suffering from math anxiety usually experiences the physical signs of having a phobia or anxiousness: increased heart rate, stomach discomfort, sweating, trembling, and weakness within the body. Anyone who has experienced extreme discomfort being in a crowded elevator (claustrophobia) or looking out a window on the top floor of a building (vertigo) can relate to the sense of panic when a math test is placed in front of a person suffering from math anxiety.

Math anxiety is so pervasive that it has been researched for over fifty years, and more than 167,000 websites are devoted to math anxiety on any given day to explain the causes and the remedies for the disorder. According to Ashcraft and Kirk (2001), math anxiety has been shown to actually "disrupt mental processes needed for doing arithmetic and [to] drag down math competence" (p. 224). Other kinds of anxiety or phobias can inhibit a person's activities; for example, a person suffering from claustrophobia can take several flights of stairs rather than getting on an elevator, and a person experiencing vertigo can choose not to go to the top of the Empire State Building. However, math anxious people suffer from an actual dysfunction in brain activity; more specifically, working memory is affected. Working memory holds "the capacity to retain a limited amount of information while working on a task and [to] block out distractions and irrelevant information" (Cavanaugh, 2007a). Furthermore, Gardner (1983) asserts that "the most central and least replaceable feature of the mathematician's gift is the ability to handle skillfully long chains of reasoning" (Gardner, 1983, p. 139). If the capability to work with long strings of numbers is affected due to math anxiety, solving such problems can be impossible.

How Does Math Anxiety Affect Children?

Unfortunately, when faced with a math problem that he doesn't understand, the child suffering from math anxiety fills his head with negativism and focuses on that, distracting himself from attempting to work through the problem in front of him. Furthermore, this distraction can start a negative cycle in which the same child rushes though the problem and makes a mistake because he's not focusing on the problem itself. The mistake then reinforces the negativism and increases the need to rush through homework or an exam (Math Anxiety, 2007). And, unlike the people who avoid the situations that make them anxious, a student doesn't have the option of avoiding math during the school day - or afterward, for that matter, when faced with assigned homework.

Ashcraft and Kirk (2001) note that there are specific types of math problems that tend to give students the most anxiety. Those problems are the ones that deal with large numbers and require several steps like carrying and borrowing numbers and long division - tasks that require working memory. Amanda McMahon, a ten-year-old fifth grader, is currently working on algebra in her elementary class. She identifies confusion as a feeling she gets when working on her assignments because "letters divided by other letters are somehow supposed to equal a different set of letters multiplied by other letters" (personal communication, October 24, 2007). At the end of this school year, McMahon will take a comprehensive New York State standardized exam in mathematics in addition to culminating math exams required by her school district. Her view of math is not a positive one.

Potential Consequences

However, it could be a very costly one. The issue with students like McMahon - those who complete their homework and pass tests but fear doing either - is not simply a psychological concern; it is a lifetime concern. Students who feel anxious when faced with math problems or who perform poorly on math exams tend to stop taking math classes beyond the point at which they are required. By not taking higher-level classes, students greatly limit their options regarding higher education and employment possibilities. While it is commonly believed that boys outperform girls on math achievement, there is evidence that whenever such a divide is noted, the divide is not permanent. Woolfolk (1998), points out that the difference in gender and math performance can "decrease substantially or disappear altogether when the actual number of previous math courses taken by each student is considered" (Fennema & Sherman, 1977; Oakes, 1990; Pallas & Alexander, 1983, as cited in Woolfolk, 1998, p. 183). The more classes a student takes, the more familiar with the material she will become, and the more comfortable manipulating math problems she will be. However, when faced with the option of feeling frustrated and anxious much of the time, it is easy to see why boys and girls cease taking math classes rather than adding to their frustration with additional courses in their not so favorite subject.

When looking toward higher education, a lack of math experience can cause the need for non-credit bearing courses in college, in addition to the required math courses for any specific field. This adds to tuition bills and the time it takes to complete a degree, and, when in conjunction with math anxiety, can cause psychological problems as well. Karin Killough, Director of the Learning Center at the State University of New York College at Plattsburgh, notes that in the 2006-2007 academic year, her tutors accumulated 10,000 contact hours assisting students in various subjects. Math courses, including statistics and calculus, total almost one quarter of those contacts (personal communication, October 24, 2007).

Sarah Taylor, a math tutor in the Learning Center, indicates that when having to break down the number of contacts she has with students who have trouble with math problems versus those with math anxiety, the breakdown differs depending on the time of the semester. During mid-terms and final exams more than three-quarters of the students she assists have anxiety issues; on the other hand, during the less stressful times of the semester, almost the same amount comes to her for assistance with math problems. Taylor, a math and accounting major, attributes this discrepancy to the high stakes of exams and students' lack of confidence in their math ability when those stakes are higher (personal communication, October 24, 2007). When a final grade is at stake, it is likely that college students who experience math anxiety will not continue taking math courses beyond what is required of them.

Applications

Teacher's Role

It is important that teachers understand when the introduction to mathematics takes place in the life of a child. According to Gardner, introduction to the concept of math begins when infants first learn "the world of objects" (Gardner, 1983, p. 129).

For it is in confronting objects, in ordering and reordering them, and in assessing their quantity, that the young child gains his or her initial and most fundamental knowledge about the logical-mathematical realm. From this preliminary point, logical-mathematical intelligence rapidly becomes remote from the world of material objects … the individual becomes more able to appreciate the actions that one can perform upon objects … Over the course of development, one proceeds from objects to statements, from actions to the relations among actions, from the realm of the sensory-motor to the realm of pure abstraction-ultimately, to the heights of logic and science (Gardner, 1983, p. 129).

Math anxiety develops shortly after children enter the world of structured education. If left on their own, Gardner asserts, children will manipulate objects and utilize them in a way that best fits their needs (p. 129). Once they enter into a school system, however, fitting their needs loses priority to goals, objectives, and standardized tests outside their control. Furthermore, there is research that points to teachers being the possible culprits of the math anxiety their students experience. In a study conducted in 1999 by Jackson and Leffingwell, the researchers identified several teacher behaviors that cause math anxiety in students:

• Being hostile

• Exhibiting gender bias

• Having an uncaring attitude

• Expressing anger

• Having unrealistic expectations and

• Embarrassing students in front of their peers (as cited in Furner & Duffy, 2002).

In addition, Oberlin (1982) found that teaching techniques also cause math anxiety. "Assigning the same work for everyone, teaching the textbook problem by problem, and insisting on only one correct way to complete a problem" increase a student's anxiousness (as cited in Furner & Duffy, 2002, p. 69). Furthermore, Woolfolk (1998) notes that

some elementary-school teachers spend more academic time with boys in math and with girls in reading. In one study, high school geometry teachers directed most of their questions to boys, even though the girls asked questions and volunteered answers more often (p. 183).

It is plausible to expect that if teachers have positive attitudes, treat students respectfully - and individually - and treat girls and boys as if both genders have the same potential for success in math, the instance of math anxiety would decline. Furthermore, there are more specific changes teachers can make in the experiences of their students.

Researchers have also indicated that the use of breathing exercises before exams may greatly impact math anxiety in students. This may be a possible area for teachers or other school staff to explore (Brunyé, Mahoney, Giles, Rapp, Taylor & Kanarek, 2013).

...

0 thoughts on “Maths Phobia Causes And Remedies Essay 1200 Words Article

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *