Department of history,
Marianopolis College .
AUSTIN , Shaun J., "Maritime Archaic and Recent Indian Evidence from Cape Cove Beach , Newfoundland ", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 8, No 2, (1984): 115-128.
BARTELS, Denis, "Time Immemorial? A Research Note on Micmacs in Newfoundland ", Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol. 75, No 3 (1979): 6-9.
BARTELS, Dennis and Olaf Uwe JANZEN, "Micmac Migration to Western Nerwfoundland ", Canadian Journal of Native Studies, Vol. X, No 1 (1990): 71-94.
Beothuk History (Accessed on August 16, 2004)
The Beothuks from the Newfoundland Heritage site (Accessed on August 16, 2004).
BLAKE, Edith, "The Beothuks of Newfoundland ", Nineteenth Century, Vol. 24 (1888): 899-918.
BUDGEL, Richard, "The Beothuks and the Newfoundland Mind", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. VIII, No 1 (Spring 1992): 15-33.
DALTON , Mary, "Shadow Indians: The Beothuk Motif in Newfoundland Literature", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. VIII, No 2 (1992): 135-146.
DEVEREUX, E. J., "The Beothuck Indians of Newfoundland in Fact and Fiction", Dalhousie Review, 1970, 350-362.
Dictionary of Canadian Biography; especially the following entries:
William Eppes Cormack
Demasduwit (Mary March)
John Thomas Duckworth
James Patrick Howley
ENGLISH, Leo F., "Some Aspects of Beothuk Culture", Newfoundland Quarterly, Dec. 1959-Summer 1960, pp. 11-13.
FRASER, Allan, "Beothuk of Newfoundland ", Canadian Geographical Journal, Vol. 65, No 5 (Nov. 1962): 156-159.
FRASER, Allan, "Shawnadithit Last of the Beothucks", Atlantic Advocate, Vol. 56, No 3 (Nov. 1965): 34-39.
GILBERT, William, ""Divers Places: The Beothuk Indians and John Guy's Voyage Into Trinity Bay in 1612", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. VI, No 2 (Fall 1990): 147-167.
HOLLY, Donald H., "Environment, History and Agency in Storage Adaptation: On the Beothuk in the 18th Century", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 22 (1998): 19-30.
HOLLY, Donald H., "An Achaeological Survey of Fogo Island, Newfoundland", Northeast Anthropology, No 56 (Fall 1998): 69-74.
HOLLY, Donald H., "The Beothuks on the Eve of their Extinction", Arctic Anthropology, Vol. XXXVII, No 1 (2000), pp. 79-85.
HOLLY, Donald H., "A Historiography of an Ahistoricity: On the Beothuk Indians", History and Anthropology, Vol. 14, No 2 (June 2003):
HOLLY, Donald H., "Places of the Living, Places of the Dead: Situating Sacred Geography", Northeast Anthropology, No. 66 (Fall 2003): 57-76
HORWOOD, Harold Andrew, "The People Who Were Murdered for Fun", Macleans Magazine, October 10, 1959, pp. 27, 36, 38, 40, 42-43.
HOWLEY, James P., ed., The Beothucks or Red Indians . The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfoundland, Cambridge , Mass, 1915; reprinted Coles Canadiana Collection, Toronto 1974, 348p. There is a web edition available of this book (Accessed on August 16, 2004)
JANZEN, Olaf, "The European Presence in Newfoundland, 1500-1604", I. BULGIN, ed., Cabot and His World, St John's, Newfoundland Historical Society, 1999.
JANZEN, Olaf, " Beothuk and Mi'kmaq ", (Historiographical essay) Accessed on August 16, 2004.
JENNESS, Diamond, The Indians of Canada , various editions.
JENNESS, Diamond, "Notes on the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland", Annual Report for 1927, National Museum of Canada Bulletin, No 56 (1929): 36-39.
JENNESS, Diamond, "The Vanished Red Indians of Newfoundland", Canadian Geographical Journal, Vol. 8, No 1 (1934): 26-32.
LOCKE, Don, "Three Beothuk Sites", Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol. 69, No 2 (1972): 29-31.
LOCKE, Don, Beothuk Artifacts, Grand Falls, Robinson-Blackmore, 1974.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "The Miniature Portrait of Mary March", Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol. 73, No 3 (1977): 4-7.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "An Unpublished Map Made by John Cartwright Between 1768 and 1773 Showing Beothuck Indian Settlements and Artifacts and Allowing a New Population Estimate", Ethnohistory, Vol. 24, No 3 (1977): 223-249.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "The Significance of Beothuk Carved Bone Pendants", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2 (1978): 139-154.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "Disease as a Factor in the Demise of the Beothuck Indians", Culture, Vol. 1, No 1 (1981): 71-77. Also in Change and Continuity , Carol WINTON, ed., Toronto, 1992, pp. 138-149.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "Methodists and Beothuk: Research in Methodist Archives", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. II, No 1 (Spring 1986): 19-28.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "Beothuk and Micmac: Re-Examining Relationships", Acadiensis, Vol. 17, No 2 (1988): 52-82.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk , Montreal and Kingston, McGill-Quuen's University Press, 1996, 640p. See the extensive review by Charles MARTIJN in Newfoundland Studies, Vol. XII, Nos 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1996): 105-131.
MARSHALL, Ingeborg, The Beothuk, St. John's, Newfoundland Historical Society, 2001, 87p.
MARTIJN, Charles A., "Les armoiries de Terre-Neuve et l'iconographie Béothuk", Recherches amériendiennes au Québec, Vol. II, No 4 (1981): 315-318.
MARTIJN, Charles A., "Voyages des Micmacs dans la vallée du Saint-Laurent, sur la Côte-Nord et à Terre-Neuve", dans Les Micmacs et la Mer , Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 1986, pp. 197-223.
McGHEE, Robert, "Contact Between Native North Americans and the Medieval Norse: A Review of the Evidence", American Antiquity, Vol. 49, No 1 ((1984): 4-26.
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McLEAN, Laurie, "Back to the Beaches: New Data Pertaining to the Early Beothuk in Newfoundland", Northeast Anthropology, Vol. XLVII (Spring 1994): 71-86.
MITCHELL, John S., "All Gone Widdun ('asleep'/died): Was Shawnawdithit Right?", Newfoundland Quarterly, XCIII, No 1 (Fall 1999): 39-41.
Native languages of the Americas: the Beothuk (Accessed on August 17, 2004)
PASTORE, Ralph, Newfoundland Micmacs: A History of their Traditional Life, St. John's, Newfoundland Historical Society, Pamphlet No 5, 1978.
PASTORE, Ralph T., "Fishermen, Furriers, and Beothucks: The Economy of Extinction", in Man in the Northeast, No 33 (Spring, 1987): 47-62
PASTORE, Ralph, "The Collapse of the Beothuk World", Acadiensis, Vol. 19, No 1 (1989): 52-71.
PASTORE, Ralph T., Shanawdithit's People, St. John's, Atlantic Archaeology, 1992.
PASTORE, Ralph, T., "Archaeology, History and the Beothuks", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. X, No. 2 (Fall 1993): 260-278.
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POPE, P., "Scavengers and Caretakers: Beothuck/European Settlement Dynamics in Seventeenth Century Newfoundland", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. 9, No 2 (1993): 279-293.
PROWSE, D. W., A History of Newfoundland from the English, Colonial and Foreign Records, London, Macmillan, 1895. There is a new edition dated 1972.
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Return to the Index page of Indians of Canada and Quebec
The Beothuk People of Newfoundland were the first Indigenous People to come into contact with Europeans - contact that tragically set the stage for their eventual extinction.
The Beothuk population, over its 2,000 year history, was never robust - historians estimate the number at between 500-1,000 at the time of European contact in 1497 when John Cabot arrived on the island. Less than 350 years later, the Beothuk were extinct.
They were a hunter-gatherer nation who lived and hunted in extended family groups. For most of the year they lived inland but in the summer and early fall, they would move to camps at the mouths of rivers to fish. The summer/fall camps were the times for cultural celebrations, sharing of news, trading and arranging marriages. In the winter, they moved inland where they set up “deer fences” which directed the migrating caribou herds to hunting areas. They did not over-fish nor over-hunt any species, and never during the calving or spawning periods.
The first wave of Europeans who arrived to harvest the bounties of the sea did not establish settlements but rather had seasonal camps, returning to their homelands before winter. The Beothuks were able to co-exist with this seasonal presence and appear to have had a mutually beneficial relationship based on a system of “silent” bartering in which one group would leave items of interest to the other group at a customary spot and vice versa. The Beothuk actually benefited from the Europeans as they scoured the seasonally abandoned fish camps to collect rope, nets, canvas, nails, hooks, metal and tools, which they fashioned into tools such as arrowheads, lance points, harpoon blades, awls and hide scrapers. They became very adept at metal work. Firearms, however, they did not touch which left them at a distinct disadvantage in future disputes.
Peaceful, seasonal co-existence came to an abrupt end in the 17th century when Europeans established settlements on the coast, in the traditional gathering points of the Beothuk, which had an immediate and profound impact on the Beothuk. Their nomadic lifestyle was dramatically disrupted as increasingly they were cut off from the sea, a vital food source. As the European population increased so did their hunting and trapping of fur-bearing animals which further impacted the Beothuk. The migratory routes of the caribou were disrupted and the herds were severely over hunted. The Beothuk retaliated and violent confrontations erupted as the Beothuk struggled to defend their lifestyle and very existence, but they were using arrows which were no match for firearms so these confrontations unfailingly resulted in high death rates of the Beothuk. In addition, the Mi'kmaqs were encouraged by the Europeans to join them in dislodging the Beothuk from their traditional lands.
Viewed by some settlers as savages, less than human, and as a threat to the safety of their settlements, the Beothuk were systematically hunted with the intent to eradicate all of them from the island. This period of viciousness coincided with a series of extreme winters which further decimated the Beothuk. They slowly starved as their traditional hunting and fishing grounds were taken from them; they struggled to maintain their deer fences and hunting practices but due to their diminished numbers they were unable to do so. Those other European introductions - tuberculosis, smallpox, measles - further devastated the population.
Government leaders grew concerned about the rumours they heard regarding the plight of the Beothuk. In a display of extreme naivety they offered a “reward” for the capture of live Beothuks - the intent being that the captives would be well treated, would learn to view the Europeans as benign, and once convinced of this view, would be allowed to return to their families and spread the word; the Beothuks would learn to trust them and would move closer to the European settlements where they could receive help. There were two fundamental problems with this plan: Beothuk beliefs stipulated that if they made peace with the Europeans their spirits would be denied access to “Spirit Island”, and the offer of the reward actually accelerated the demise of the Beothuks as the settlers took it to mean captive at any cost.
What little traditional knowledge there is on record is due to the offerings of Shanawdithit, the last remaining Beothuk who was found, starving, along with two other women in the spring of 1823. The other two women died shortly thereafter of tuberculosis, but Shanawdithit survived. She was placed in the care of the William Cormack, a merchant philanthropist. Cormack encouraged Shanawdithit to record her knowledge of her people, her culture and language. Shanawdithit died of tuberculosis on June 6, 1829. The drawings of this brave young woman, the last Beothuk on earth, form the foundation of our scanty knowledge of a People lost forever.
In December 2017, the Canadian government issued a formal repatriation request to the Scottish government for the remains of two Beothuk, Nonosabasut and his wife, Demasduit, held by the National Museums Scotland.
This repatriation is a different situation because there isn’t a community of descendents to return the remains to. If the repatriation request is successful, the remains are expected to be held in The Rooms, Newfoundland and Labrador’s largest public cultural space, in St. John’s, Nfld.
This is an excerpt from the 4th edition of our book Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples® which is included as a handout in our trainingand is available for online purchase here.
Here's an article and short video you might find interesing "Did Christopher Columbus Discover the New World?"
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Updated: December, 2017